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October, 2010

The DNA Main Chart has been updated. It is a cumbersome project to keep the chart up to date so if you see any errors or have questions, please contact us.  Also, if you know of additional members that have not been added to the chart, please let us know so we can correct it.

November, 2009

We have a new chart to share with you.  This was compiled by the FamilyTreeDNA project and is a colorized chart grouped by haplotype, G, I, and R. 

 Haplogroups in green have been confirmed by SNP testing. Haplogroups in red have been predicted by Family Tree DNA based on unambiguous results in the individual's personal page.

 The markers in red have shown a faster mutation rate then the average. Explained another way, if you match exactly on all of the markers except for one or a few of the markers FamilyTreeDNA has determined mutate more quickly, then despite the mutation this mismatch only slightly decreases the probability of two people in your surname group who match 11/12 or even 23/25 of not sharing a recent common ancestor.

This is a new way of looking at our data and may open up new relationship possibilities.

I hope you find this helpful and interesting.  Let me know if you have any questions.  Click here to view.

 

April, 2009

Some of you who have been regular visitors to this site may have been wondering why there have been no new postings for a while and some emails have gone unanswered.   I have been unable to keep up our correspondence for a few months due to a medical issue.  However, I am doing better and am looking forward to returning to my genealogy interests.  Gale has been helpful in taking care of some of my correspondence during this time. I am hopeful this explains any confusion there may have been.  Thank you for your patience and understanding.    Craig

February, 2008

New DNA Profiles

Welcome to Brent Reid Everett of Oklahoma (R1b1c – Cluster 2) who is a 12/12 match with Spencer Everett. Both trace their family line to North Carolina. Welcome also to Edward Everett of Michigan (R1b1c – Cluster 1B) who traces his family line to Pennsylvania, Canada, and Germany.

The new data is posted on the Chart.

Analysis of New Data and Reorganization of Old Data

Edward Everett’s profile is somewhat unique. He matches with Charles William Everett (Cluster1B) as having the only profiles with a 12, 25 at the first two alleles (DYS393, DYS390). In fact their profiles are the only ones with both of these values in our entire R1b database. Edward’s profile is also unique in that he is the only one with a 12 in the eleventh (DYS392) allele. 

It is also interesting in that he is only an 8/12 match with Charles but a 9/12 match with William Gerald Everett, who lacks the initial unique allele values. At present I am placing him next to Charles on our chart. It is possible these are just random mutations that he and Charles share. Or, as I have written before, their unique values could represent the core of an earlier DNA pattern. However, since our database has no DYS390 26s, which would have meant that early mutations would have gone up (to 26) as well as downward (to 23 and 24), and similarly we have no DYS393 11s (all of these alleles in our database are 13s, without exception), it is likely these mutations are unique to the evolution of Edward’s and Charles’ family lines.

As indicated in the December DNA Report, Edward Evitt from the UK, traces his family line to Ireland. He becomes only the second I1a (Cluster 7) in our data base, joining D.E. Everard, who is also from the UK.  

The Origins of Haplogroup I1a

The FamilyTreeDNA information reports that the I1a lineage “likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Viking/Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and Eastern Europe where it is found at low frequencies.” The original haplogroup I dates to 23,000 years ago or longer. The primary branches are I1a, I1b or I1c.

 Wikipedia reports indicated that the I1a group displays a peak frequency of approximately 35% among the populations of southern Norway, southwestern Sweden, and Denmark, and rapidly decreasing frequencies toward the edges of the historically Germanic-influenced world: “Among Scandinavians (including both Germanic and Uralic peoples of the region) nearly all the Haplogroup I Y-chromosomes are I1a. Another characteristic…is their rather low haplotype diversity (STR diversity): a greater variety of Haplogroup I1a Y-chromosomes has been found among the French and Italians, despite the much lower overall frequency of Haplogroup I1a among the modern French and Italian populations. Taken together, this suggests that the Haplogroup I element of the ancestry of Scandinavians might be descended from a very small Paleolithic population of Southern European extraction, which became distinct from the ancestral population of Haplogroup I1a individuals outside Scandinavia.

 It that this…shared ancestral population of I1a and I1b2…, may have weathered the last ice age in a refuge located somewhere in the Iberian peninsula or southern France, or perhaps the Italian peninsula. After the end of the ice age, some of them headed northward and repopulated Northwest Europe and Scandinavia. This population appears to have carried haplogroups I1a and I1b2 at significant frequencies, with a numerical superiority of Haplogroup I1a.”

Understanding the Mitochondrial DNA Profile    

Since many readers have asked what information can be gained by having the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tests completed, I ordered a kit for Christmas for my wife, Sandy, to take the test. Since we just received her results I thought it would be helpful to use her data to illustrate the findings.

As a reminder, the mtDNA occurs outside of the cell nucleus. The Y-DNA occurs within the nucleus. MtDNA is transmitted genetically to male and female children, but only the female child transmits it to the next generation. Males carry their mother’s mtDNA but do not pass it on. Women carry their mother’s mtDNA and pass it on to both their sons and their daughters.

MtDNA can only be used to follow female lineages. In addition, changes (mutations) in the mtDNA occur very slowly. Therefore the mtDNA data is not very helpful in tracking mutations across recent generations as we do with the Y-DNA. However, it is used in population studies to identify both the earliest origins of a particular DNA haplogroup as well as in tracking the migrations of the populations that carry the haplogroups. Since these mutations occur in a chronological manner, geneticists can use them to track populations and geographic areas. In other words, the mtDNA can project the earliest origins (called “deep ancestry”) of our consecutively linked female ancestors.

Unlike our Y-DNA profiles which identify haplotypes and the values of each allele, mtDNA reports the broad haplogroup for the individual and then it identifies the specific mutations that occur. Each mutation then defines a unique subgroup for that individual and the location of these mutations can be compared to others within the haplogroup. For example, my wife’s haplogroup was identified as HVR1. She had three mutations at the locations 16243C, 16293G and 16311C. These are reported in reference sequences and the mutations (which represents one interchanged chemical base) appears in red (see below):

ACTGCAACTC

CAAAGCCACC

CCTCACCCAC

TAGGATACCA

ACAAACCTAC

CCACCCTTAA

CAGTACATAG

TACATAAAGC

These data for mtDNA can be compared in an online database (www.mitosearch.org) with our FamilyTreeDNA program just as we make comparisons with our Y-DNA profiles.

Anthropologically scientists have traced the earliest female line back to the “mitochondrial Eve” who lived about 140,000 years ago. Unlike the Biblical Eve, this Eve was not the only living female at the time, but her DNA is the one that survived and produced mutations which occurred over the subsequent generations.

The broad H haplogroup is identified about 20,000 years ago in Europe. In fact, this haplogroup represents about 40% of all mitochondrial lineages in Europe and it is distributed fairly uniformly throughout Europe. Its earlier origins appear to have been in the Near East, but these need further analysis. The subgroup H1 is about 13,000 years old. It constitutes 46% of the maternal lineages in Iberia and about 14% of all of the European maternal lineages. There are already 13 identified subgroups of haplogroup H for which FamilyTreeDNA tests. As more data is collected the earliest origins will be defined more clearly.

The well known book by Oxford geneticist, Bryan Sykes (The Seven Daughters of Eve, 2001), identified each of the earliest seven haplogroups as “clans”. He called the H haplogroup Helena. He suggested that this clan originated with the “birth of Helena” about 20,000 years ago in Dordogne a Vezere in south-central France. He reports that its greatest frequency of occurrence is among the Basque populations of northern Spain and southern France. Significant historical figures with this H haplogroup include Marie Antoinette and Empress Alexandra Fyodorovan, wife of the Russian tsar, Nicholas II.  

You can read more about the mtDNA tests and the public database at www.FamilyTreeDNA.com.

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                                                                                                  December, 2007   

                                                                          Merry Christmas

 

 Welcome To New Members

Welcome to Edward Joseph Evitt who has just received his DNA profile (25 markers) and has joined our Project. He lives in the West Midlands, UK and traces his earliest ancestor to a John Evitt who was born c. 1844 in Ireland and who died in 1903 in Glasgow. His Haplotype is I1a and his profile appears in Cluster 7. We have only one other I1a profile. I will do some research on its origins.

 Welcome also to Edward Everett who lives in Michigan and who recently ordered his test kit. He traces his ancestry to Germany through Pennsylvania and Canada. We will look forward to seeing if Edward’s profile identifies any other potentially German connections.

 New Haplogroup Confirmations and Upgrade Designations

Five of our Project members have had their haplotypes confirmed with additional testing:

Ralph Gene Everett R1b1c (Deep SNP)

Randy Everett I1b (Y-HAP Backbone)

Kenneth K. Everett I1c (Y-HAP Backbone)

Randall Everett I1c (Y-HAP Backbone)

Alan David Evered I1c Y-HAP Backbone)

Please study our updated DNA Chart on our website (www.everettgenerations.com) and you will note that most of the R1b profiles have been upgraded to haplogroup R1b1. There are a couple exceptions and Richard B. Everett’s profile has been upgraded to R1b1c. Also, since the last updated Chart, most of the I haplogroup profiles have been upgraded to I1c.  

As the Familytreedna database grows the scientists and computers can identify key mutations that define in more detail subgroups (called subclades) within a larger haplogroup. If you have studied the Haplogroup Map that familytreedna offers, which appears online and was developed at the University of Arizona (it also makes a nice requested Christmas present), you can follow the movement from left to right as the earliest original haplogroups gained new mutations that define another population and then another mutation occurs which defines another population, and on and on.

 For example, the most common haplogroup in Western Europe is R1b. As more data was identified a certain mutation defined a subgroup, R1b1. Further data identified yet another mutation which now identifies the R1b1c subgroup. Go to your familytreedna personal page and click on the Haplogroup button at the bottom of the list. On the page that appears there is a chart which identifies all of the subgroups in your haplogroup. If you follow down the list to your specific group and read across the row the specific mutation number that is in your DNA profile and which distinguishes your subgroup will be identified. 

 Holiday Promotion for New DNA Kits from FamilyTreeDNA

The folks at Familytreedna have given me a limited number of discounts that can be applied to the three tests identified on the certificate. These are not for upgrades but for new tests by individuals who have not been previously tested. 

If you have some family members who are considering joining our DNA Project, please have them take advantage of these discounts. You will them to request the kit through me and the discount will appear on the invoice that they receive with the kit.  No credit cards orders are necessary.

I only have a couple of certificate discounts for each type of test so I will make them available on a “first come, first served basis.”

                                                                                                                                                      
Report On the 4th International Genetic Genealogy Conference

When I attended the 1st Conference in 2004 there were about 60 project administrators in attendance. This year’s 4th Conference had over 200 administrators participating. FamilytreeDNA has grown from the early days of just exploring the potential for its services in the field and defining how genealogists can use the DNA data to becoming the leader in the field with its association with the National Genographic Project, having its own research lab in Houston for developing new tests, to opening an office in Europe.

The President, Bennett Greenspan, reported that the program now has over 108,000

Y-DNA samples and over 55,000 mtDNA samples. They have processed nearly 200,000 DNA samples through the Genographic’s international project and now have over 4000 surname projects.  

The conference included a presentation and ongoing consultation from Michael Hammer, Ph.D., the internationally recognized population geneticist who has been involved in the program since its inception and who directs the Human Origins Genotyping Lab at the University of Arizona.  In addition to the “nuts and bolts” presentations on nomenclature issues in the field, changes in administrators’ webpages and resources, etc., there were special presentations on project ethics, TMRCA predictions, and variations in Y-DNA among Native American populations. 

The most interesting presentation for me was presented by Roberta Estes, Director of the DNA Research for the Lost Colony Center for Science and Research in Washington, North Carolina. The disappearance of the Lost Colony of North Carolina remains a mystery. In 1587 115 settlers were dropped off on Roanoke Island (near the outer banks of coastal North Carolina) with the plan of establishing a community in that area. When the ship returned with supplies for the community in 1590 the group had vanished. Various theories have suggested that the group simply perished or that they were assimilated into the local Native populations. Ms. Estes directs a DNA search for the ancestors of the lost colonists. I assume some of her findings will be published over the next few years.

 A report from David Hernanz, Ph.D., a Spainard and biologist, on the progress of the National Genographic Project indicated that they had established 11 research centers around the world and had collected over 27,000 DNA samples from isolated indigenous populations. He indicated that several scientific papers were being prepared but none had been published yet. If you visit their website (https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/journey.html ) you can sign-up for their free newsletter as well as upload your DNA profile from Familytreedna into their database. I have mentioned before that their website has great maps of early human migration routes.

There were important presentations on ethics and security issues. A group of administrators was to be formed to review a broad range of ethical issues. These issues ranged from the management of DNA samples from deceased members, whether the DNA should be treated with the same criteria as are medical records, to “who owns the data”, upgrading permissions, and publishing the data. Many of these issues were debated as time allowed but the goal was to develop clear ethical guidelines.

 Adrian Williams is a new information tech person on the Familtreedna staff. He has worked in the computer field for many years and has also pursued genealogy. He described the Familytreedna websites and management of their databases as somewhat out of date. His role is to “rebuild the whole platform” with the goal of “improving access and navigation”. (He received applause for this goal.) His other goal is to improve security of the program’s data. He reported recent incidences where project members’ data had appeared on other websites. He discussed how Ancestry.com and perhaps other large genealogy businesses, searching to add to their databases, have gained access to DNA data by members inadvertently giving their passwords for their personal familytreedna webpages to these programs when they upload their own personal data. He called this “data mining” and “data scraping”. Remember to protect your personal code. I may make some changes to the way we display our own DNA data in the future.  

  Hope everyone has a great holiday !

 Craig

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                                                                                              September, 2007

 Project Reaches 70th DNA Profile

I am happy to report that we have reached our 70th DNA profile. Welcome to Ralph Gene Everett (R1b1, Cluster 1A, Indiana), Randy Everett (I, Cluster 4B, Colorado), Dave Everett (J2, Cluster 9, England), John William Everett (R1b1, Cluster 1B, Georgia). I am also listing an “anonymous” profile, (R1a1) which appears in Cluster 8 on our DNA Chart. This individual has not yet given me permission to list his name and family line.

 The revised DNA Chart has been uploaded to our website.

 I have been working with a new data management resource from FamilyTreeDNA which allows the administrator of the project to create groups of DNA profiles and which then calculates within each grouping the mode and mean, etc. The values of this for us will be both in processing groups of profiles and in identifying the modal profile (allele values) for each group. I believe that once I have all of our data assigned to groups we will be able to upload it to our website.

 4th International Conference on Genetic Genealogy

 The FamilyTreeDNA sponsored conference has been announced for mid-October in Houston. I attended numbers 1 and 2, but not the third. Since the developing resources for genealogy have expanded so quickly, even over the past year, I decided that I would like to attend this meeting to keep up with the dramatic growth. If you have been reading your DNA Facts & Genes monthly newsletter from FamilyTreeDNA you will be aware of many of the new developments. If you are not receiving it there is a button on your individual home page to request it. I always check the addition of the newsletter when I order your kits.

New DNA Surname Project for Avants, Avents, Avent, Avance, etc.

Greg Pierson (North Carolina) has begun a DNA project for the above Avant related surnames. The FamilyTreeDNA folks had us discuss our lines to make sure there was no overlap of his data with the Everett project data. His line has been placed in the I1b2a haplogroup. He believes that the early origins of these surnames are English and Highland Scots. Interestingly, he has a maternal line Avara, whose name transposed to an Averyt, an Avera, and eventually an Averitt. He mentioned an Averasboro that was a Civil War battle site in North Carolina.    

 If you have family lines with this surname or know of folks with these surnames, please refer them to Greg and his project. The project can be accessed at the Familytreedna.com website and his email address is gpier66@gmail.com.

 

Family History News – July

This has been posted on our website and includes information on our Everett Bio Project. There is data on the Isaac Everett family line of Ohio. There is also further information on the origins of our surname. This is based on a letter that I sent to the editors of the British genealogy magazine, Your Family Tree. They have a regular feature examining surnames and about a year ago I asked if they would review the Everett/Evered surname. Their analysis of the origins were published in their July issue.

Everett Bio Index Is Now Online

After much work this summer, we have compiled an extensive index from our files and from issues of the former Everett Newsletter. These data represent everything from brief one-page summaries of an individual to whole books about family lines.

It is available now at - http://www.everettgenerations.com/biography_index.htm

 

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                                           June, 2007

Welcome New Members

Welcome to Randy Everett who lives in Colorado and has recently joined our DNA project. His sister, Nancy Hugo, is the primary researcher. They trace their family line to Charles Orin Everett, born 1833 in Portland, Maine and died 1921 in Pueblo, Colorado.

Welcome to John William Everett, Jr. who lives in Georgia and has also recently joined our project. He has traced his family line to John and Lucille Troxel Everett who were in Gillespie, Illinois in the mid-1800s.

We will look forward to receiving their DNA profiles later this summer.   

We have received new DNA profiles for Dave Everett, who lives in Yorkshire, UK. (See the story about his unique Haplogroup below.) and for Terry Everritt who lives in Florida. Terry is in Cluster 1A and a 12/12 match with Alvin Everett.

 New Everett Haplotype Identified

Dave Everett from the UK joined our group expecting to receive some help connecting his earliest ancestors from Essex with one of the other Everett/Evered lines in East Anglia. We were both surprised when his DNA profile identified him in the Haplogroup of J2. This is the first member of our project to represent this group. Dave indicated that he had traced his family back to Essex in the mid-1700s and that they came from “simple farm laborers.” 

We had to do some research to learn more about this Haplogroup. Here is some of the information we found at the wikipedia website:

Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen 31,700 years ago (plus or minus 12,800 years) in the Near East). It is most closely related to Haplogroup I, as both I and Haplogroup J are descendants of Haplogroup IJ (S2, S22). Haplogroup IJ is in turn derived from Haplogroup F. The main current subgroups J1 and J2, which now account for almost all of the population of the haplogroup, are both believed to have arisen very early, at least 10,000 years ago.

Haplogroup J2 is present especially in ethnic groups resident in or originating from Southern Europe, Anatolia, the Levant (Israel, Lebanon), northern Mesopotamia (Kurdistan), the South Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia), Central Asia, and South Asia: for example, Muslim Kurds (28.4%), Central Turks (27.9%), Georgians (26.7%), Iraqis (25.2%), Lebanese (25%), Ashkenazi Jews (23.2%), and Sephardim Jews (28.6%). Haplogroup J2 has sometimes been thought to be a genetic marker of Anatolian Neolithic agriculturalists. It is also very frequent in the Balkans (Greeks 20.6%, Albanians 19.6%) and in southern Italy (16.7-29.1%). Its frequency rapidly drops in the Carpathian basin (Croatians 6.2%, Hungarians 2.0%, Ukrainians 7.3%). The significant presence of J2 (J2b2+J2a) in India (the highest being 21% among Dravidian middle castes followed by upper castes 18.6% and lower castes 14% must be of a very early date, because Indian J2 is not accompanied by its "loyal fellow-traveller" E3b1 that penetrated to the Near East from North Africa after the end of the Ice Age and is tightly bound with the spread of both J-subbranches since the Neolithic era.

Haplotype G2 Confirmed In Our Project Data

In the March DNA News I reported that Randy Everette and I, both from Haplotype I, had completed the SNP testing on our DNA and were both confirmed in the haplogroup subtype as I1c. Melody Everett-Neddo, the researcher for DNA volunteer, and her father, Ernest Dale Everett, Sr., requested and received the report to confirm his haplotype. His profile is in the rather unique Cluster 3 with two other profiles that were projected as Haplotype G. The additional analysis conducted at the FamilyTreeDNA lab confirmed his G haplotype and identified it even more specifically as G2. Since the other two G profiles in Cluster 3 are close matches we might assume that they would be G2 also.

Again researching this subgroup at the wikipedia site we found the following description:

Members of the G group are all descended from a common ancestor who developed a mutation at the M-201 site on the male DNA chromosome. This man who developed this mutation was living at that time with men who carried in their Y-chromosomes the predecessor mutation to haplogroups F through R — most of the haplogroups that now exist.  The man who developed by chance the M-201 mutation would not know that anything was different, and it probably took sometime before the descendants of this M-201man dispersed to different locales. Spencer Wells indicated this M-201 ancestor lived about 30,000 years ago along the eastern edge of the Middle East, perhaps as far east as the Himalayan foothills in Pakistan or India.  

In general, it seems that G2 was the earliest mutation, and that G1 and G5 were more recent because some G1 and G5 haplotypes are genetically close to persons within G2. Whatever the date or specific site of origin, part of the G family put down roots predominantly in the area south and east of the Caucasus Mountains in the period before the Current Era (over 2000
years ago) when some other groups were instead populating all areas of Europe for the first time after the Ice Age glaciers melted. These G persons gradually relocated into other areas, including the Indian subcontinent.  The Caucasus are today mainly the countries of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan
and southwestern Russia. It is assumed the G people were in the Caucasus area in this early period because today a higher percentage of G haplogroup is found among certain populations there than elsewhere in the world. The G family definitely partially migrated westward into Europe in the last several thousand years by invasion, capture as slaves or other means of movement.  

Additional information on all of these haplogroups is available at the Familytreedna (www.familytreedna.com) and at the Genographic Project website (www.nationalgeographic.com/genographic.)

Summer and Fall Family Reunions

If you are attending a reunion please be aware that it is an excellent opportunity both to educate others about our DNA project and to recruit new volunteers. If you need fliers explaining the DNA project or outlining specific data and information for your DNA profile or Haplogroup please let me know. The Familytreedna program is also willing to provide us with DNA collection kits, at no cost, to take and to reunions and to give to new volunteers. I have done this several times. Let me know if you would like me to arrange this for you.       

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                                            March, 2007

Welcome To New DNA Volunteers

Welcome to Paul Evers whose DNA profile places him in Cluster 1B and an 11/12 match with Richard B. Everett. Paul reports that his parents came to the US directly from Germany during the 1920’s and his family line is traced back to Kreis Segeburg in northern Germany in the early 1700’s. Due to the 30 years war, records earlier than 1700 were lost. Paul has also researched the Evers surname back to the same root of our Evered and Everett roots – “Eberhardt”. He found that both Eberhardt and Evers are found extensively in northern Germany in Holstein near Flensburg and Mecklinburg.  

Those of you in Cluster 1B may want to compare your profiles in the Y-Search database to see if there are some links with other Evers.

We are also happy to welcome two new DNA volunteers and researchers who have just requested kits: Dave Everett, who lives in North Yorkshire, UK, traces his family to Essex, UK, and Robert Terrence Everritt, who lives in Florida and traces his family through the South. We will look forward to learning of their results soon.

NEW DATA!! DeepSNP Testing Data for Clusters 4A and 5

Randy Everette (Cluster 4A) and I have received the results back from FamilyTreeDNA for our DeepSNP testing. This is an “upgrade” from our original DNA profiles that uses the same DNA sample. The DNA researchers, particularly the population geneticists at the University of Arizona, have identified additional markers which are links to the earliest DNA and mutations in our ancestral lines. These are not the same DYS markers that appear on our DNA profiles. SNPs are Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. They mutate very slowly and therefore can be used to identify our earliest line of ancestors and even their geographical origins and migrations. The results will confirm the specific haplogroup of each individual’s DNA profile. The haplotypes that we are assigned when we receive our DNA profiles are general projections (e.g., “R1b,” “I,” “G”) based on the large DNA database. These haplogroups can define not only the specific earliest branches of the human tree but now the “twigs” too.

My DNA had to be analyzed twice to come up with a definitive haplogroup. Randy and I were comparing notes on the origins of our general “I” haplogroup and he volunteered to have his DeepSNP test run too. His results were actually received before mine. We have both been placed in the I1c haplogroup. This means that our DNA participants who are in Clusters 4A (Randy’s) and 5 (Craig’s) are fairly assured of being in the same I1c haplogroup. It would be interesting for one of our DNA volunteers in Cluster 4B to have the DeepSNP test completed to see if those profiles would fall in the same haplogroup. (The test can be ordered from your individual FamilyTree webpage and the cost is $79.)

            Below are the “deepclade” markers that are analyzed for the DeepSNP test. They are like the DYS alleles reported for each of your profiles. These are reported with “+” and “ – ” to indicate their presence. As you will see they are matched identically in the two profiles.

DeepSNP Results for Randy: M170+ M223+ M258+ P19+ P38+ M161- M21- M227- M253- M26- M307- M72- P30- P37.2-

DeepSNP Results for Craig: M170+ M223+ M258+ P19+ P38+ M161- M21- M227- M253- M26- M307- M72- P30- P37.2-

Here is the FamilyTreeDNA explanation for I1c origins: The I1c lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Viking / Scandinavian populations in Northwest Europe and extends at low frequencies into Central and Eastern Europe.

            Based on my readings, here are a few more observations about the origins of haplogroup I and I1c. In general, haplogroup I is found in most present-day European populations, but most commonly in Scandinavia, Sardinia and the Slavic populations of the Western Balkans. One source believes it arrived in Europe around 20-25,000 years ago from the Middle East. This arrival would have placed it in these locations just before the beginning of the last major glacial expansion. (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup I (Y-DNA). The Genographic Project reports that the I haplogroup is from a individual male born approximately 20,000 years ago. It suggests that he was born in an isolated refuge area that humans occupied during the last Ice Age – possibly in the Balkans. As the ice sheet began to retreat about 15,000 years ago, this ancestor’s descendents were among the early colonizers of northern Europe. (From the Genographic website cited below)

            You can track the proposed migration of the “I” haplogroup at the National Geographics Genographic website: https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html?card=my036.   For those of you in other haplogroups you can click on the “genetic markers” button at this same website and find the migration routes of other haplogroups. Make sure you are looking at the Y-Chromosome data and not the mtDNA data.

            For more detailed information of the potential “twigs” of this I1c haplogroup go to the FamilyTreeDNA “I1c Project”: //www.familytreedna.com/public/I1c-Y-Clan. This is a special project to study geographic origins of all volunteers who have this haplogroup. Anyone with this confirmed or projected haplogroup may join.

As a further analysis, even though Randy and I share the same haplogroup and early common ancestor some 20,000 years ago, our 25-marker profiles are considerably different – only 17 out of 25 matches.

The left column of alleles is Randy’s profile and the right column is Craig’s profile

Locus

DYS#

Alleles

1

393

14   16      

2

390

23   22

3

19*

15   15

4

391

10   10

5

385a

15   15

6

385b

16   15

7

426

11   11

8

388

13   13

9

439

11   11

10

389-1

14   14

11

392

12   12

12

389-2

31   31

13

458

15   16

14

459a

8       8

15

459b

11   10

16

455

11   11

17

454

11   11

18

447

25   27

19

437

14   14

20

448

20   21

21

449

28   28

22

464a**

11   11

23

464b**

14   13

24

464c**

14   14

25

464d**

15   15

 

 

 

 

 

According to the FamlyTreeDNA website calculations based on our first 12 markers the possibility of Randy and I having a recent common ancestor is low – only 17% probability over 24 generations, or 600 years (using 25 years as a generation).

FTDNATiP™ Report

Family Tree DNA Time Predictor*
Version 1.2 - Patent Pending

 

In comparing 12 markers, the probability that Craig A. Everett and Randy Everette shared a common ancestor within the last...

4 generations is a

.07%

8 generations is a

.72%

12 generations is a

2.57%

16 generations is a

5.96%

20 generations is a

10.89%

24 generations is a

17.12%

 

 

 

 

 

 

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December, 2006

                                                       Merry Christmas

                                                              to all of our DNA volunteers and families

DNA Haplogroup Predictions

Our Family Tree DNA program has been in the forefront of identifying and predicting Haplotypes based on our DNA profiles. As their database has been expanding (they now report over 82,000 of Y-DNA profiles) they have been able to make more accurate predictions. In concert with the consulting geneticists and the laboratory at the University of Arizona, they have even been able to identify and/or support many additional sub-haplogroups beyond the basic ones identified in from the early research.

These predictions are based on the specific genetic patterns in the repeats in each of the alleles in our profiles. In addition, we can purchase additional SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) testing that will confirm specific underlying markers and more empirically support the specific haplogroup within which each of us belong. The SNP testing actually measures genetic markers that are different from the ones identified in our original DNA testing. These are the markers that have continued to be transmitted from our earliest ancestors. When I ordered the original SNP test on my DNA early in the year they confirmed the formerly predicted Haplogroup of “I”. I have just ordered the “deep clade test” which will place my profile within a specific “subclade” of Haplogroup “I”. This is a $79.00 investment that will tell me more about the origins of my group’s earliest ancestors. Depending on whether or not you have had an earlier SNP testing completed, you can order one or more of these additional tests from your homepage by clicking on the “Haplogroup” section and reading down to the explanations.

 The predicted haplotypes for each of us are identified in each row with our names on the Project Chart. The haplotypes in red are the ones that have been confirmed with the additional SNP testing. If your profile is a reasonably close match (11/12) with someone who has already had the haplogroup confirmed than you can be fairly assured that you fall within the same haplogroup as that individual. As more and more subgroups are identified, it may be useful to have your DNA SNP tested if you wish to follow the literature and interest in identifying our earliest human origins (see below). There are now 14 “subclades” offered by the Family Tree DNA program – see the lower two charts at the bottom of this report. When the results of my new test are completed, my profile will be identified within one of these 14 subclades. 

 Family Tree DNA has just announced a SNP Assurance Program whereby if you order a SNP test and your Y-DNA Haplogroup “cannot be predicted with 100% certainty, Family Tree DNA will provide our Backbone SNP test for free....This new program will also enable us to refine our prediction system for the future, and may also help resolve any ambiguous predictions for samples tested in the past.” The haplogroups that will receive this level of confirmation are the following: A, B, C D, E, E3a, F, G, H, I, J, K, K2, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, R1a, R1b, and R2. As you may recall the majority of haplogroups in our database are “R1b1” and “I”, with three “G”s and an “R1a”.

 

New books to add to your Christmas list

Bryan Sykes, Blood of the Isles: Exploring the Genetic Roots of Our Tribal History.

    New York: Bantam Press (In press).

 Spencer Wells, Deep Ancestry: Inside the Genographic Project. Washington, D.C.:

National Geographic Society, 2006

 Ann Gibbons, The First Human: The Race To Discover Our Earliest Ancestors. New

     York: Doubleday, 2006.

 Anna Beyer, The DNA Detectives: How the Double Helix Is Solving Puzzles of the

     Past. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press (Avalon), 2005.

 Stephen Oppenheimer, The Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story – The

     Surprising Roots of the English, Irish, Scottish, and Welsh. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2006

 

More information on our “deep” ancestral origins

Many of you have asked for more information on the new research, theories, and literature that takes us beyond our immediate family history research to understanding how DNA profiles and haplogroups can point to the earliest origins and migrations routes of our ancestors. Here are some additional data and information from a variety of sources, along with the references if you wish to read more about your own haplogroup.

 It is believed that R1b arrived in the area of present day Spain, having migrated from the east about 30,000 years ago. These were the stone age or Paleolithic peoples. Everyone who has the R1b Haplotype is assumed to have descended from a single early male, and his descendents “account for over 40% of all of the chromosomes in Europe.” It is thought that today’s Basque population is the closest, genetically, to this haplogroup and that their language may be that of the earliest progenitor.

 This group of humans were pushed southward into northwest Spain and southwest France as the last Ice Age developed about 18,000 years ago. As the European continent warmed, the group followed the wild game northward and is believed to have entered Britain about 15,000 years ago. They probably evolved as a culture from strictly hunters of wild and migrating game to hunter-gathers and then to farmers in southeastern Europe about 8,000 years ago. This change would have occurred in the population in the UK as recently as 4,000 years ago. As farming communities developed the R1b people made up the major populations of what is today Spain, Portugal, France, Belgium, Denmark, England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. It has also been projected that the female mates for these men were the mtDNA haplogroups “H” and “V”. (This overview is from Ken Nordtvedt, http://home.comcast.net/~libpjr1/haplogroupI.htm .)

 Haplogroup I is most prominent in northwestern Europe, represented in about 25% of the male population there. It is believed that this human group arrived in Europe from the Middle East about 20,000 to 25,000 years ago. The specific mutation that defines this group occurred in Europe so this haplogroup is found only in that area. Its early roots are associated with the Gravettian culture that was known for shell jewelry, figurines, and the use of mammoth bones to build their homes. They were also known for their stone tools with small pointed blades used for large game hunting. (See D. Garvey, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~dgarvey/DNA/hg/Ycc_I.html ; and Ken Nordtvedt, http://home.comcast.net/~libpjr1/haplogroupI.htm .)

 The subgroup I1a has its highest incidence in Scandinavia where it accounts for 88-100% of Norwegian and Swedish populations. It is reported to occur at a rate of approximately 15% in the UK. It is believed that during the last glacier period these human groups may have taken refuge in southern France and the Iberian Peninsula or in the Ukraine and area of central Russia.

 Another subgroup, I1b, has been identified as occurring in the Balkans and parts of eastern Europe. Additional  subgroups include an M223 and I1c. Further research will  determine where these fit within the major subgroups. (See Athey and Nordtvedt, 2006, http://www.jogg.info/12/Athey.htm .)

 For those of us in the I haplogroup, here is some help from Ken Nordtvedt in refining the subgroups. He reports that if one has a DYS19 value of 14 and a DYS392 value of 11 then one is likely to be in the I1a subgroup. Only one of our profiles, that of D.E. Everard of the UK in Cluster 7 has these values. Perhaps this is why we have not been able to link his family line to other clusters. (See Nordtvedt reference above.)

 For the three members of our database with the projected G haplogroup (Cluster 3), it has been reported that this group is most common in the Caucasus Region with 70% in northern Ossetia. The frequency of G decreases dramatically as one moves westward to only about 1-2% on the Atlantic coast. The mutation occurred in the population from haplogroup F. Apparently the G haplogroup is quite clearly distinguished by the values that appear in DYS425, DYS452, DYS446, and DYF399S1. (See the technical article by Goff and Athey, http://www.jogg.info/21/Goff.htm .) Our DNA volunteer, Ken Everard, who has a G haplogroup and traces his family line to France, has followed some of the research on this haplogroup.

 The Family Tree DNA website reports the following origins and dates to these I haplogroups:

 

I  Haplogroup I dates to 23,000 years ago or longer. Lineages not in branches I1a, I1b or I1c are found distributed at low frequency throughout Europe.

I1 Haplogroup I dates to 23,000 years ago or longer. Lineages not in branches I1a, I1b or I1c are found distributed at low frequency throughout Europe.

I1b The Balkan countries likely harbored this subgroup of I during the Last Glacial Maximum. Today, this branch is found distributed in the Balkans and Eastern Europe, and extends further east with Slavic-speaking populations.

I1c The I1c lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within Viking / Scandinavian populations in Northwest Europe and extends at low frequencies into Central and Eastern Europe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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November, 2006

 

Learning More About Haplotypes - Technical DNA Data Analysis

            Some of you have asked how the predictions for haplotypes are made by the FamilyTree program. While it is fairly technical mathematically, it is understandable. It is based on the frequencies that occur with each allele and the use of algorithms (I was an engineering student in college for two years but I never got to this in my math courses).

            The FamilyTree website has several pages for explaining their predictions. The best article I have read is by a DNA surname administrator who began his project about the time we began ours – Whit Athey. His article is entitled, Haplogroup prediction from Y-STR values using an allele-frequency approach (Journal of Genetic Genealogy 1:1-7, 2005.) You can read this online: www.jogg.info/11/athey.pdf .

            For those wishing to understand how closely you fit within a certain haplotype, or where a specific mutation may place you relative to one of our project haplogroups, the tables in his article will be helpful. For example, for the R1b1 haplogroup, our DNA data for DYS390 (the second column of alleles) shows some variation between 23, 24 and 25 repeats (See the DNA Chart). The 24 repeats represent the most common in our data.

            Based on Athey’s table the allele frequencies for DYS390 were 24 (55.2%), 23 (28.4%) and 25 (14.6%). For those of you have 23 or 25 you can see that your mutation occurs only is a small percentage of the database. These mutations may be random or may distinguish your family line at some earlier time in the family’s history.

            Athey created his on calculation “instrument” of genetic genealogists. You can enter your DNA profile in the chart and it will calculate the haplogroup that it most closely fits. This is online, too: https://home.comcast.net/~whitathey/predictorinstr.htm .

            To do more work with your own DNA profile and learn where it fits within the growing DNA database you can access the YSearch resource from your FamilyTreeDNA personal page. You only need to upload your data to the search site by clicking on the YSearch icon/button at the top of the page. The explanation and use of the Search resource is explained at: www.ysearch.org .

 

Join the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG)

          This organization evolved a couple of years ago specifically to offer a forum and educational resources for genetic genealogists. Memebership is FREE and open to anyone who is participating, either directly or indirectly, in a DNA Surname Project. Their membership is approaching 3000 with representative in over 30 countries.

            It has become the best central resource for those of us who try to follow new scientific articles on genetics. For those who wish to place and understand your DNA profiles in broader context of haplotypes, as well as identifying the earliest origins of your haplotype, this will be a helpful resource.

            From their homepage you can click on your haplogroup (R1ba, I, G) and you will find a brief overview of the geographic origins and timeframes of your group. For each haplogroup there are resources of other websites and specific scientific papers to pursue online. Their homepage is: www.isogg.org .

 

Subscribe to the Journal of Genetic Genealogy

            This is an effort by a group of genetic genealogists to provide a “professional” journal-type format for resources relevant specifically to genealogists working with DNA projects. It is an electronic journal. For the most part the articles have been written by genetic genealogists, many of whom are administrators of FamilyTreeDNA surname projects (the article by Athey cited above appears in this journal). Take a look at the articles. They range from book reviews and reports on new scientific studies, to articles related to genealogy issues.

            The first issue appeared in the Fall, 2005. This was followed by the Spring, 2005 and then the Spring, 2006 issues. You can access these issues and the articles at: www.jogg.info . I have written several emails to try to learn if other issues will be forthcoming but I have not had a reply.

 

New DNA Projects Focus on Ethnic and Geographical Origins

            When you go to your FamilyTreeDNA personal page you will now find links to other projects. There is a new movement, following the extensive development of surname projects over the past few years, to begin to collect this surname DNA data in groups that represent specific ethnic and geographic origins. These began at first with very specialized geographic areas, such as in Iceland and with other unique and/or isolated populations. This is what the National Genographic Project is doing on a grander scale, as well as the Jamestown Project for 2007, which is discussed on our November Family History Update page. 

            I would encourage you to consider pursuing the ones that are of interest to you and then writing to let our other project volunteers know of your findings. For example, my page has listings to connect me with two British geographical projects and with a Viking project. I have not had time to pursue this so I hope some of you will.           

 

New LEVERITT DNA Surname Project Begins - Let's Help Them Recruit

        I just learned that a FamilyTreeDNA surname administrator has volunteered to begin a surname project for the Leveritt families. He tells me that he is not related but it is the family line of his sister-in-law. He and I have agreed to share data to see if these family lines are indeed related. I do not know the origin of the Leveritt surname but I suspect there is an interesting story about how the "L" was added. When I have time I will put in into the UK website surname census database.

 I am asking all of you to watch for Leveritts, who may or may not be doing family research, and see if we can help recruit some participants for this new project.

The administrator is Terry Barton (terry@bartonsite.org). Here is his welcome message to prospective volunteers that appears on the FamilyTreeDNA site.

 Welcome!  I administer the Leveritt Surname DNA Project that you just joined, a service I am pleased to provide – as no one has stepped forward from the families to do it.  However, you should know that this is not one of my ancestral surnames.  My goal is to find 1 or 2 people who are interested in this family who will take over management of this project.  I will train and coach them.  Until that happens, I am here for you.  I will handle all of the basics and answer your questions, but I do not have time to promote the project, so you will need to help do that.  The more people involved, the better chance you have of finding your genetic family and breaking down your blank wall.

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October, 2006

 Check out all the new information on the website and enter your thoughts and comments on either the Bulletin Board for general family research or for the DNA Project – these are for queries as well as sharing information.

 Craig’s Annotated Bibliography for Genetic Genealogy now appears on the FamilytreeDNA.com website: www.familytreedna.com/pdf/GGAB.pdf.

I started working on this about three years ago, both as an effort to educate myself in this field and to provide resources for the DNA volunteers who asked to learn more about the use of DNA in their research. I happened to mention to Bennett Greenspan, President of familytreeDNA, that I had been preparing it and he asked to see it. He thought it would be helpful to include it on their website and I have expanded in considerably over the past year.

 New FamilyTreeDNA Project to Study the “G” Haplogroup.

While we have only three projected “G” Haplotypes (See Cluster 3 of the DNA Chart)it has been difficult learning more about the evolution and origins of this group. Our three profiles are linked to France, Illinois, and New York. Studies suggest that the origins of this group are in India or Pakistan, and it has dispersed into central Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. I am sure our three volunteers will appreciate more research into their origins.

 Resources for Learning More About Your Ancient Origins Based on Your Y-Haplogroup.

Jane Stubbs Bailey, an Everett descendent, researcher and author of the book (with Vernon Everett, Cluster 5) on Nathaniel Everett of Tyrrell County, North Carolina sent me the link to one of the more comprehensive articles that I have read on the origins of R1b1 Haplogroup:www.ethnoancestry.com/EAM269Sept05.htm. This will be of interest to all of our R1b1 Haplotype volunteers.

 Also at this Ethnoancestry website is an excellent article overviewing the “Y Haplogroups of the World”: www.ethnoancestry.com/haplo.html . This has great graphics in the form of colored pie charts for the major haplogroups and their locations. One diagram is for the world and another is for Europe. Within the colored pies you can see the relative proportion of, for example, R1b1s and I in the UK or the Scandinavian countries.